“Earning Your Labels”

I was just thinking about the problem of elitism and gatekeeping in the software community. You know, the “You’re not a real programmer if you [use Notepad++ || only code HTML and CSS || only know Python || still use Windows* || don’t know about pointers || etc etc etc]” arguments. Most of these boil down to a pissing contest about who can use the most bare-metal programming language, do bit hacking to get a .0001% increase in optimization, and use butterflies and wind currents to write their programs.

So, where do you draw the line? How high-level do you have to get before you’re “not a real programmer?”

*Yes, I’m a huge Linux advocate. But come on. You can program on Windows. I personally don’t like doing so, but you can. If you have to bash on someone for using the OS they know, it’s because you don’t feel secure and confident in your own skills. All you’re doing is making someone feel like trash and not want to build things. It’s immature. Cut it out.

“Real Programmers”

My initial reaction is that, if you’re writing code to tell computers what you want them to do, you’re a programmer. It doesn’t really matter how many layers of interpreters you have to go through in order to get the command across. My line is drawn past HTML and CSS (that’s legit), but before Wix (…picking out templates and arranging a couple things isn’t programming).

What about Dreamweaver? Are people who use Dreamweaver programmers? (If you’re cringing, it’s likely that you too have not used DW in a few years. I hear it’s gotten loads better. I still don’t really want to touch it though. Bad taste in my mouth.) They don’t necessarily write the actual code, but they are using creativity and intelligence to design and build software.

If you think the answer is, “No, that’s not real programming,” I ask: what about programs that are really just a couple library calls stitched together? Sure, you have to know what they do, and you have to know some syntax to get them to cooperate, but is that programming? What about Excel macros?

This is a loaded question, because “programmer” is an identity tag. There are lots of levels of expertise, and people put loads of effort into learning. They also often put effort towards feeling “worthy” of the label. To let someone else just waltz into your exclusive club of smarty-pantses feels like some kind of glove-slap. But the only reason you feel weird about letting someone new use the label is that you wanted to be in the club at one point, and whoever was already in it made you feel weird about not having “earned it.”

This is pointless. It’s so pointless.

My line, you might notice, isn’t too solid. Programming is a skill; to call yourself a programmer you need to have invested at least some time in learning how to tell computers to do things. But telling computers to do things is something everyone does, every day, even if it’s just posting cat pictures to the Internet, and one intuitively understands that that isn’t programming. So the definition of programming needs another component: you need to be using creativity to build something for someone else to use. I also feel that you should have a modicum of closeness to the computer that the average user doesn’t see. You should be typing code of some sort, probably. Yet at the same time, I still consider Scratch users programmers.

This is all kind of weird and fuzzy and I don’t have a solid answer. Let’s aim for something a little more abstract.

Who is a hacker?

This feels like easier ground to cover. A hacker is someone who makes stuff, usually involving code, always involving skill and creativity. So, can Dreamweaver users be considered hackers?

I’ll admit, I have the same knee-jerk response of “no,” but that’s because of my opinion on Dreamweaver. Let’s try again.

Imagine there’s a program that uses a WYSIWYG editor to build software, and it actually somehow outputs sensibly-structured code, which you may or may not have to tweak. You need to tell the computer, through this editor, how you want things to look and what they do. You design the visuals and the functionality yourself. Is someone who uses that a hacker?

I think yes. I wouldn’t consider that person a programmer, unless they tweak the code a lot. But I’m willing to extend the label “hacker,” because they’re building something.

In other words, I consider designers hackers, particularly if they design functionality as well as visuals. A solid designer goes to a programmer with a startup idea and both contribute substantially to the final product–they’re both hackers.

So, I know there’s someone who disagrees with me. ESR’s “How to Become a Hacker” FAQ, linked in the sidebar from the glider symbol, outlines the minimum amount of skill he considers necessary to be thought of as a hacker. In fact, my most well known post is linked from that guide, and probably a lot of my readers got here from it. But I think the guide, while helpful and very much in the hacker spirit, is showing its age just a bit.

C, Java, Perl, Python, and Lisp as the main languages one should learn definitely seems outdated. These days you’re probably better off learning JavaScript, Kotlin instead of Java, Ruby or Python, and… probably still Lisp, but maybe one of its dialects. And HTML/CSS, obviously. A lot of us don’t need C any more. Software is increasingly hosted on browsers rather than as native applications, and if hacker time is valuable as the guide purports, then we shouldn’t spend it on learning a complicated language unless we intend to specialize in what it’s used for. There’s something to be said for knowing the kinds of things C would teach you, but it seems a stretch to call it necessary.

Similarly, I think using “hacker” as a title of status isn’t the way to go these days. Once upon a time, this made sense. These days… ehh. Especially the idea that you have to be called a hacker by a “well-known” hacker. The community’s too big for us to define that kind of thing now, so what it gets us is this scrabbling for status, and an in-group. Does making “hacker” a title help our cause? Does making an in-group speed the creation of open source software?

It did once, because few people wanted to be part of the group, and hackers needed something to be proud of because no one else held them in high esteem. Times have changed. It’s more important to welcome new members than it is to describe an elite.

Open Source

But wait, don’t you have to contribute to open source to be a hacker?

… Good question. It’s been part of the definition for ages, and for good reason. But we have to respect that in a lot of hackerly fields, there’s not too much of an open source infrastructure. There’s no official way, that I know of, to go post a functionality spec and some back-end code online and say, “I’m looking for a volunteer visual designer for this open source project,” and get one. There’s not really a GitHub that’s geared toward PSD files and so on. I think Adobe’s been trying to make something similar, but I have my doubts about the prognosis of this attempt. (You can use GitHub for this kind of thing, technically, but it’s not usually done. There’s no community that thinks of that as normal. Ergo, no infrastructure.)

I think we can loosen up on this a bit. Let’s say that, in order to be a hacker, you have to be helpful to other hackers. Open source produces better software, yes, but much of its function is just hackers helping each other build stuff. This addition to the definition seems to cover the chaotic-good benevolence that’s kind of integral to hackerliness. So, if you’re a designer and you provide friendly critique and advice, write articles/draw tutorials/make videos about your work, contribute to public domain or creative commons, maintain documentation for your tools, or anything that kind of runs in that vein, consider yourself a hacker.

So, to be a programmer, I think you should be writing code. Don’t care what language, what editor, or even if it’s very good quality code.

To be a hacker, you should be using your skill and creativity to build new things, usually with code but not always, and you should help others who are building things.

One more thing. Your learning shouldn’t be stagnant, for either category. A programmer who’s been spewing out bad COBOL since the eighties is barely a programmer, and definitely not a hacker. And a hacker who’s not refining their technique through focused practice and frequently poking their nose into the bandwagon to see what’s up with the newest shiny tech or trade technique or tool, is just… not a hacker, by definition. You have to be building stuff to be a hacker, which means you’re refining your skills as you do so. Technically, you could be writing the same CRUD app over and over and over again, but even that has some room for improvement, and it’s really really hard to imagine creative builder types limiting themselves to that for long.

These are just my views. I think a lot of the friendlier people in the community would find them reasonable, though.

Competition and impostor syndrome

I think the lack of this elitism is why I’m happier in design classes than programming classes. It’s not that I like design *better.* It’s that I don’t like programming classes, because the air tends to be heavy with the feeling of judgment.

Ever try asking a question on Stack Overflow? 80% chance you’ll be told it’s a stupid question, you aren’t using the right language and framework, you should have Googled x y and z, and your coding style is crap too while we’re at it. Sure, you shouldn’t ask other hackers to fish you answers that out of the API docs, and if you’re asking other people to read your code snippet then you should bother to indent it and comment anything that’s not obvious. I’m not talking about stuff like that. Even questions that seem to me perfectly legitimate get this kind of treatment. It’s just hostile and unnecessary.

I’m a girl, so this judgment stuff goes double for me. I’ve had people kind of assume I’m studying CS/programming because I want to snag a guy who’s going to get a good job, so if I wanted to prove my legitimacy, I’d have to work extra super hard. Some people are just… like this. You can try to live up to the ridiculous standards they set for you before they’ll give you basic peer respect (but you stay probation indefinitely–there’s no good faith if you have an off day), or you can ignore them, which usually just makes them more angry and hostile. I tend towards the latter because the former is too much work, but keeping them out of my hair feels like defusing a bomb. Everything I do is examined extra carefully, in case there’s something wrong that can be pointed out. The same thing happens to anyone who isn’t white, especially if they’re self-taught. You’re incompetent until proven otherwise.

Designers are more chill–they aren’t so competitive they feel the need to cut each other down. There’s still a lot of skill-based insecurity and comparing everyone else’s work to your own and trying to improve, but they aren’t nasty to each other the way so many programmers are. I can relate. No matter what, I always feel like I haven’t built enough, I don’t know enough, I’m not good enough. This isn’t new, really, it’s just something creative types have to deal with and practically everyone has the same self-dialogue. But when people can’t deal with this by dismissing it and just continuing to work, and instead decide to handle it by throwing their insecurities onto someone else, you just get this warped echo chamber of impostor syndrome and a really toxic environment.

I think a lot of the problem is that not everyone in the field realizes we’re a creative field, not a science or engineering discipline. If we all knew that, we’d know about this dynamic already because all the other creative fields have already been there and done that and learned how to deal with it. I happen to be an artist, writer, musician, cook, and designer as well as a programmer, so I’m fortunate enough to recognize what’s going on, which gives me some protection from it. (Notice I’m not a mathematician, chemistry whiz, or engineer. Funny how that works, isn’t it?)

Where’s this coming from?

This train of thought is heavily inspired by my getting more into freeCodeCamp. I’ve been reading their Medium articles off and on for… gosh… two years? Or more. But I didn’t get involved with the actual organization or their tutorials and stuff, because they’re very web focused and I wasn’t sure that was the direction I wanted to go. (If you’ve been here a while, you might remember I was more focused on mobile apps and desktop programming.)

Anyway, fCC is very anti-elitism, and I really like that about them. It’s why they’ve always been my favorite Medium column/publication/whatever they’re called. It’s very much an “anyone can learn this, yes you are smart enough so no excuses, come here and I’ll show you” organization.

I think this helpful non-competition is something the rest of the field should adopt. It’s not going to devalue your skills, because they have objective value. You can still be proud of how much you know without being a jerk about it. Actually, truly skillful hackers will be held in even higher esteem if more people learn to program, because they’ll recognize the difficulty of what you’re doing and want to emulate you.

Can we just drop the popularity contest?

Someone out there is going to read this and think I’m not a senior enough hacker for this request to be taken seriously, that I don’t have enough cred myself to kick the door open for other people. I don’t think I have to explain the irony.

Anyway, I guess this post isn’t really for those people anyway. It’s for my larval-stage readers, who are the worst affected by this phenomenon. I just want to make you aware of this message that’s constantly being thrown at you, and let you know it’s total bull.

Make stuff. Learn things. Help people.

You’re a hacker. It’s what you do.


Hacking for Designers #1: HTML

(Apologies to David Kadavy. I stole his title. :P)

A note: “Hacking” among programmers just means you’re building something new, usually with code (but not always!). It’s not the kind where you just type a bunch and then say “I’m in.” Programmers refer to those people as “crackers,” and they don’t think very much of them; partly because it doesn’t actually take that much intelligence to break into stuff, and partly because what kind of uncreative programmer can’t find something better to do? Honestly. The exception is of course pentesters, or “white hats,” whose job it is to try to break into systems to find out where they’re vulnerable and secure those vulnerabilities. Pentesters are quite highly regarded. Developing security and finding obscure weaknesses to shield is much more difficult than what most crackers do, and much more valuable.

So, you have the ability to make stuff look awesome through design. It’s important! We need people like you, because otherwise technology would be a royal pain in the butt to use. Design is the reason Apple succeeds even though they don’t always have the best tech, and lack of it is why it took Linux forever to get off the ground as a user’s OS despite being awesome at the code level.

But not being able to code at all can be a bit… limiting. There’s a learning curve, yes, but fortunately the basics aren’t anywhere near as intimidating as they look. You’re definitely smart enough to pick this up. The main barrier is how scary and weird code can look to a neophyte.

The good news is that hacking is a lot more similar to your own field than you think! People draw a dichotomy between software devs and designers like they’re total opposites. Even geographically, our classes are on the opposite side of campus next to the physics and chemistry departments (here at UNI). But this is super weird! We have zero to do with science. They call us computer scientists, but that’s just to make us look fancy. What we are is makers, and the way we learn and the way we work are much more similar to painters and writers and… designers!

So, I’m whipping up a quick guide for you last minute. It’s really not going to take you long to pick this stuff up. Coding doesn’t get difficult until you’re deeper into the field, and if you get that far, you’re probably addicted so it doesn’t matter 😉

This only covers web development. There are lots of other specialties in the field, but this is the one that’s most useful to you.

First Stop on the Nerd Train: HTML

You’re gonna need this. Pure HTML is butt-ugly; you need CSS to do any kind of layouts or colors. But you can’t learn CSS until you learn some basic HTML, because you need something to style. Trying to learn CSS first would be like trying to format a book without the actual text.

HTML is for content and structure, CSS is for layout and styling. Don’t fall into the trap of using tables for layout. People did that a lot in the 90s, and it makes your site ridiculously difficult to code and maintain. Also it’s likely to play merry hells with responsive design these days. Fortunately, there are a few newer tools that fix this problem and let you use grid layouts without getting into the whole <table> mess. We’ll get there. HTML first. Just wanted to warn you off this pitfall in case you see it somewhere else.

First off, you’re gonna need a code editor. Right now, the hacker favorite for web dev is Brackets. It’s free, it’s open-source, and you can download it here.

Got that?

Okay, so here’s the basic skeleton for an HTML5 project. Copypaste at will; I’ll explain what all this does in a minute.

<!DOCTYPE html>
        <title>Welcome to Website!</title>
        <meta charset="UTF-8">
        <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="thisisyourcssfile.css" />

If you save this as an HTML file and run it in Brackets’ live preview (use the lightning bolt button on the top of the right sidebar), you’re going to see a blank white page. That’s normal! You should also see “Welcome to Website!” in the tab’s label in your browser. That’s because I set it as a placeholder title; you can put whatever you want in there.

About those indents–they’re not strictly necessary in HTML, but they make your code way easier to read! You could put everything on one line if you really wanted, but it would be a pain.

A standard indent is four spaces. However, Brackets does this neat little trick where it turns a tab keypress into four spaces, so you don’t have to wear your thumbs out!

I think the only thing I still haven’t explained is the <!DOCTYPE html> thing. That just tells the browser you’re using HTML5. Nothing weird!

Wait, How Does Any Of This Work?

Skip if you already know about how browsers and servers interact. If not, here’s a quick explanation.

A “live” site (one that can be accessed from anyone’s browser, like google.com) lives on a server. That’s a computer, somewhere, which can talk to other computers and knows how to hand out web pages when other computers ask for them.

So when you type a URL into your browser (e.g., Firefox, Chrome, etc), it uses your Internet connection to go ask that server for the files that make up the web site you want. Usually this means an HTML file, a CSS file (or possibly more than one), a handful of images, and probably some scripts (programs) too, especially if the web site is one you can post stuff on and interact with rather than just read and browse.

The URL you type in is pointing to a location and filename on the server. If you just type the domain name, like somethingsomething.com, then what the server will return is the index.html file (and anything linked to it, like stylesheets and images). You’d still get the same page if you typed in somethingsomething.com/index.html because it’s the same thing. So, as a web developer, you should always name your homepage index.html so the browser can find it.

All those files are basically just instructions for your browser, telling it how to display all the stuff on the web page and what should happen when you click on stuff. Sometimes you enter text into forms and whatnot, and your browser can send that back to the server, asking for whatever response to that data is appropriate.

For now though, we’ll start with static web pages: that is, pages that are just HTML, CSS, and images. If you need more interactivity, you’ll have to either learn a programming language (JavaScript, Python, and Ruby are very reasonable choices for this), or find and work with someone who does. I encourage you to try learning to code, though! Picking up the basics is pretty easy and lets you do more, plus it looks fantastic on your resume.

Adding Stuff: How Elements Work

Most of your other code is going to go in between the <body> tags. That’s where you put all your content. <head> is a separate element. It isn’t the page header! That’s something different, and you’ll put it in the <body> tags with the rest of your content. <head> is only for metadata, which is stuff that you put in to tell browsers and search engines stuff about your site, like what character set to use, keywords to help searches find your site, and how to find your CSS file.

So, what can you put in the <body>?


Here’s the basic structure of most elements: an opening tag, like <p>, then some content, like some text or images, then a closing tag, like </p>. Closing tags have that slash before the letters. It tells the browser that that’s the end of the element (the end of the paragraph, in this case). There are a few elements that only need one tag, like the charset declaration in the head, or image elements, but most need two!

You can have elements inside elements, and that works like this:

<p><a href=”heylookalink.com”>Here’s a link!</a></p>

You never do it like this:

<p><a href=”heylookalink.com”>Here’s a link!</p></a>

Always nest elements inside each other, don’t let them cross through each other like that!

Meet Some Elements

Here are a few elements to get you started. There are a lot of elements, and you can find out how all of them work from w3cschools.com, but here are the ones you probably want at first. They’re all linked to their respective W3C Schools pages, so just go there to find out how they’re used. Everything has examples and stuff!

Divs and other style-related dividers

<header> and other semantic elements

These elements are just boxes to put your stuff in so you can style them up later. Like, <header> is for the header in your design, that shows up at the top of the page. It’s an invisible box at first, but you can use CSS to paint the box different colors, or change its size, add borders, stuff like that. Go to the semantic elements link for the whole thing, there’s a bunch like this: <nav>, <article>, <section>, <aside>, <footer>, and so on.


These are like the semantic elements, but they’re custom! You can give them classes, for when you have a bunch of divs to style the same way, like <div class=”product”>, or you can give them IDs, for when you want there to be only one div in that style, like <div id=”left-sidebar”>. (We’ll talk more about classes and IDs when we get into CSS.) Divs used to be the only kind of “styling boxes” available, but HTML5 introduced the semantic elements above.

Text formatting elements

<h1> <h2> <h3> … <h6>

These are also referred to as header elements, but they’re not just boxes. You put text inside, and the browser recognizes that it’s a header and styles it accordingly. By default, h1 is huge and h6 is pretty small (but still bold, so it’s different than other text). Here’s what my blog’s styling turns them into:







Paragraph tag. Pretty straightforward!


1. 2. 3. “ordered” lists, bullet-point “unordered” lists, and the list items you put in them, respectively


Links (they need an href=”linkurl.com” to work tho, so your browser knows where it’s supposed to go)

Other stuff

<!– comments –>

This is an important tag, and one you’ll probably want to use a lot, especially at first. It’s a special one: it lets you make notes to yourself or other developers. Anything inside a comment tag is totally ignored by computers reading your code.

It’s an unusual looking tag, so here’s how it works.

<!-- blaaaaaah it doesn't matter what I put here! the browser doesn't care as long as it's between these tags! -->

You can use comments to warn future readers about some weird hack you put in your code, or you can use them as a to-do list, or you can use them to remind yourself how something works. Or you can put dorky ASCII art or silly jokes in it, so if someone comes along and decides to read your code, it’s like an Easter egg for nerds. There’s a proud tradition of leaving silly comments in source code.

Occasionally you’ll hear developers brag that no one should need comments because code should be written so it’s “self-documenting”; in other words, one should master the art of precise and meaningful names for variables, classes, etc. This is bullshit: sometimes you just need comments, and usually the developer making said claim is NOT one whose code is “self-documenting.” It’s just an excuse for them to be lazy and not write comments. You’ll find that programmers are very lazy–especially the ones who are either very bad at programming, or very very good.

Either way, just go ahead and write your comments.


This makes a line across the page. Sounds weird, but sometimes you need it.


Meta tags are how you tell other machines things about your code. They always go in between the <head> tags, not the <body>. You can tell your browser what character set to use (this gets important when your site has international visitors). You can tell search engines who the author of the page is. You can give search engines information about what’s on the page by offering it keywords. You can also tell your browser to notice how wide the device is, and change the page’s formatting accordingly–this will get more important as you get into responsive design.

None of the stuff in <meta> will actually show up on your page, but other machines will be able to read it. The only way your site visitors will see any of it is if they use their browser’s developer tools to manually look through your source code. Also, <meta> are single-tag elements. You’ll never need to type </meta>.

If this element sounds like a weird grab bag of semi-related stuff, it kind of is. W3C can elaborate on the stuff you can do with <meta>. At some point, you’ll need to know about what <meta> can do, but for now it’s okay to skip it and come back later.

<!DOCTYPE html>

That tag is called a doctype declaration. Browsers will generally still render stuff just fine without it as long as HTML5 is current, but as the web page gets older and the standards change, it might start to get buggy unless the browser has a doctype declaration to tell it which standards you’re using in your code. The way we code for the web changes over the years.

This tag has to be the very first line of your HTML file. Don’t try to put it anywhere else.




I’m still working on this post, as it’s going to take a bit to cover everything you’ll need to get started, but I’m confident I can get it down to a manageable and relatively non-intimidating post. Yes, I’m publishing it before it’s 100% finished. A blog post isn’t a book, and nothing that’s going to be here should make the post misleading due to its initial omission. In other words, all the chunks of info on here should be fairly self-contained. (It’s 3AM and I’m getting sesquipedalian wordy because I’m tired, so I’m going to stop for now. Isn’t that a weird habit?)

Happy hacking!

Take Apart A Computer: Follow-Up Post

(If you’re here because you want to know what to do with your shiny new Linux DVD, you can skip about the first third of this.)

Today I attended Take Apart A Computer Day, hosted by the Women In Computing club here at UNI. This was kind of a beta test run for a potentially larger event later on.

I worked together with two other girls (if you ladies are reading and want your names here, let me know–but I don’t generally mention names on this blog unless asked, for people’s privacy) on a huge old box. We have no clue if it worked beforehand (the consensus after two professors and all three of us took a crack at testing it was no), but it definitely isn’t working now, so I guess that’s a success. After all, the event isn’t called “Put a Computer Back Together in Full Working Order Day,” and we did get it apart. Eventually.

So, we learned a couple things from the beta run for next time:

  1. Test all the machines beforehand–after moving them.
  2. The test monitors that the computers also need to be tested on a known working box, so we know our testers work. Nothing like screwy monitor settings to make you crazy wondering what’s up with the computer.
  3. Two people is probably a good number for working on a computer together… three is a bit much. Having a partner makes things easier, but six hands is pretty awkward even if the people are friendly.
  5. Juice boxes! Yes, this is kind of a tradition with me now: bring juice into a place where it would be very bad to spill juice. But they were still all consumed! On the other hand, we need more people willing to take home pizza that’s been sitting out for a few hours…
  6. Having extra Linux install DVDs to hand out is a good thing! Not necessary, but good–people are curious!

Anyway, I’m sending this post around the WIC mailing list (er… Google group? It’s different from the CedarLUG list, which is legitimately an old-fashioned mailing list). About five of you folks from this event now have Linux test/install DVDs. If I remember right, I handed out a Xubuntu, a Mint, two versions of Debian, and… something else? Maybe that was it.

I’m pretty sure I’ve used each of them at one point, and they should all work even if they’re not all the newest and greatest; I think they’re all the long-term-stable releases so they’ll be fine. If they don’t work for whatever reason, don’t sweat it; email me or whatever and I’ll make more, or if you have blank DVDs lying around (or are willing to buy a pack for $5 at an office supply store), you can make one.


Anyway, when I give people techie stuff, I like to make sure they can easily figure out how to use it. (Doesn’t always happen, but I try to.)

So! If you’re curious about Linux and maybe just got a DVD from me, here’s a guide to all the guides I’ve written on the subject:

If you didn’t get a DVD or yours turned out to be a non-functional dud, here’s how to make one.

If you don’t have an optical drive in your computer, or want a more permanent plaything than the DVD, here’s how to make a virtual machine instead.

If you’re confused about the Linux ecosystem, here’s how I learned what I know.

If you’re just confused, period, here’s the FAQ I wrote for another event which involved lots of Linux newbies.

If you just want to run Linux off your DVD to play with it a little, it’s simple. Stick it in the optical drive of your computer, and restart the computer. While it boots, tap F12 (it’s probably F12, but keep an eye out for what key you’re supposed to press for menu options during your computer’s boot sequence) and select “Boot from CD/DVD” in the menu.

The difference between doing that and making a virtual machine is that a virtual machine will save any files you create from session to session (unless you do magic to configure it otherwise). An install DVD won’t save anything, so you get a fresh, clean system every time you start it up.

If that’s not working for you, email me in the list or comment on this post and I’ll try to help. If that still doesn’t work for you, bring the offending computer to the next WIC meeting if it’s portable (let me know what you’re doing so I make sure to come), or invite me over to your place if it’s not/if you can’t attend the meeting. I will help you get a Linux running if that’s something you want.

I’ve installed Linux on some weird old machines and gotten at least workable solutions out of them. Sometimes a setting needs to be tweaked or Google needs to be scoured for information. Sometimes a certain distro just doesn’t like your hardware, and you need to try a different one or download extra driver files or plug your computer into a wired Internet connection or something weird. Such is technology.

That’s usually not the case though. Most installs these days go really smoothly, especially with Mint or Xubuntu.

Speaking of installs, CedarLUG–UNI’s Linux Users Group–is holding a Backup Day pretty soon, and an Install Day sometime after that. If you want in on that, here’s the web site (I coded that! The penguin at the top is a bit of a giveaway…). Subscribing to that mailing list will get you updates on those events, and the occasional computer puzzle.

Happy Linux-ing!

How to make a Linux CD

A CD or DVD with Linux on it is a useful thing to have! There are quite a few things you can do with it:

  • You can try Linux out without installing it. Just putting the CD in the optical drive and running Linux from there won’t touch your main operating system or files. Using it like this can actually help you fix a Windows computer–you can still access the hard drive and back up all the files that are on it from Linux even if Windows is acting weird. (You can also use it to kind of crack into your machine if you’ve been locked out for some reason, but don’t try it on a network because the sysadmin will notice and flip out. You didn’t hear this from me.)
  • You can install Linux alongside or instead of your main OS–be careful about your files if you’re doing a wipe-and-install, of course, and be careful about partitioning your drive too. Make sure you have a backup of at least everything important if you do it this way!
  • You can also install Linux on a virtual machine, although using the .iso file you download from the Internet and burn to the CD works just as well for this.

So how do you make one? It’s pretty easy:

Get yourself a blank CD or DVD.

Some distros won’t fit on a CD and you’ll have to use a DVD. If you don’t know what this means yet, get a DVD.

Pick a Linux distribution (or “distro”).

There are lots of different “flavors” of Linux. They might look a little different, or be designed for special systems or specific groups of users.

If you’re new to all this, I suggest Mint or Xubuntu. They look a lot like Windows, so they’ll seem familiar, but they’re way better! And they’re a breeze to install. Normal Ubuntu I wouldn’t recommend as a first distro, actually; the user interface it comes with is kind of clunky. The only difference Xubuntu has is that it looks simpler and that makes it a little easier to use.

If you’re curious or you’ve tried this before, try searching around for a distro that’s particularly suited to you. I’m quite fond of Debian, but I’ve been playing with Elementary, which looks more like Mac OS X than the normal Windowsy-looking interfaces.

Mint and Xubuntu are great general-purpose distros. Xubuntu is probably the better one on older computers–I’ve made a ten-year-old box on two gigs of RAM run like a decent computer by installing Xubuntu. If your computer is THAT old, you’ll want 32-bit; otherwise, use 64-bit.

A word about some terms you’ll see. Unless you’re developing or testing for the distro as a project–in other words, if you’re a normal user–you won’t want to use the development versions. Anything that says “nightly release” or whatever, stay away from using as a main operating system because it’s still in testing.

“LTS” means “long term stable.” That is a GOOD thing to download. It may not be the very most recent version, but it’s a well-tested one that’s going to be supported for a reasonably long time.

You can also just get the most recent stable release. Those or LTS releases will be fine.

Download the .iso file

Either from the Internet directly or as a torrent. Googling the name of your distro should make it pop up. Where possible, always use a download link suggested on the project web site. There are probably multiple “mirrors” to download from; try to choose one that is on the same continent as you.

Any computer with 4 gigs of RAM or more should be using 64-bit operating systems. That’s probably what you want unless your computer is really old.

If this is your first time, I’ll make it easy on you. Here’s the download page for the latest Mint (64-bit, Cinnamon desktop), and here’s the download page for Xubuntu.

A torrent is a more reliable way of getting a distro if you have a torrent client set up. They’ll keep going even if they’re interrupted, and they’re less expensive for the maintainers. However, the clients are kind of tricky to set up, at least in my experience. There’s nothing wrong or sketchy about torrenting Linux distros–you can use torrent clients to get hold of sketchy Internet stuff, but that’s not what we’re doing here, this is super innocent and it’s just another way to get your .iso file.

Burn the .iso file to the CD

You probably know how to do this on your computer. If not, Google it. It’s pretty simple.

Label the CD, and maybe put it in a paper sleeve

Lots of people forget to do this, and it’s really confusing! Make sure you mark your CD with the distro name (e.g. Linux Mint), the version number (e.g. 18), and whether it’s 32- or 64-bit (probably 64).

Optional but fun: Burn more CDs for your friends


“Did you get it to do that thing you were trying?”

“I figured out how to install programs!”

“I found a tutorial about the command line!”

“My resolution is acting funny, anyone have ideas about that?”

This is why Linux User Groups exist. Get enough nerds in one room playing with a shiny toy and something fun is going to happen.


Happy hacking!

There’s a new site I’m excited about

Hashnode – An open, friendly and conversational community for software developers

Remember when Atwood and Spolsky were developing StackOverflow, and their informal pitch was, “We’re like Experts Exchange, but without the evil”?

Hashnode is like StackOverflow, but without the evil.

Don’t get me wrong–SO is still a powerful resource, especially if you’re after something fairly simple and the question has already been asked. But the community is so huge that the moderators–who are supposed to be a result of Atwood’s valiant attempt at designing a system for the community to govern itself–have become Julius Caesar… and the system kind of needs a Brutus. If you know what I mean.

Basically, what I’m saying is: SO is a great resource, but not a great community any more.

Anyway, Hashnode looks to be more casual. It’s still a smallish community, or at least it feels small, and it looks like there isn’t so much policing.

I think SO’s problems are mostly just a result of its bigness, and also the fact that employers want to see a StackOverflow account on a dev’s resume, with as many points as possible. A tool meant for collaboration has become the subject of competition.

The solution to the bigness is the breakup of SO’s monopoly. I think there are several other sites cropping up to take its place, or at least take the load off; if you look in the comments on that article (which is where I found Hashnode), there appear to be a few different options that hopefully aren’t so dictatorial.

I suggest you join one, if you don’t belong to a forum or something already. Dream In Code is okay, if I remember right, but there was something about it that made me not stick around. Don’t remember what it was. Probably my own inexperience and inability to contribute; it was a while ago.

I don’t think Hashnode has that problem. They’re making a point of trying to welcome beginners. Anyway, you might want to check it out.

Happy hacking!


The last of today’s post trio; the three have a common thread.

There are loads of Internet people who will tell you how to do stuff, or give you cheesy motivation posts that are all the same except for their peppering of spurious advice that rotates in and out depending on the latest fads (“Get up early! Drink 8 glasses of water daily! Do a juice cleanse!”). This isn’t that.

If you’re trying to learn to code (that is, you’ve decided you still want to, not because other people have pressured you into learning), this post is for you to bookmark and return to when you’re feeling apathetic.

Because if you’re feeling apathetic, we lose something important. Your work is important.

What you’re doing is developing the kind of abilities that let you tinker with the world around you. Your ideas, if you choose to pursue them, can change how other people live. You can extend what humans are capable of.

You’re a maker. You’re powerful. You fix things. You solve problems. You’re capable. You’re creative. You’re clever. You’re sitting on a lot of potential. Whether you can feel it right now or not, you have all this pent-up energy waiting to be released into something.

Your code is art. With your mind alone you can make things that are not only beautiful and elegant, but serve a purpose.

Half the companies in America want to hire people like you because of the things you can do. No matter how you seem on the outside, your mind is a powerful tool. You’re among the relative few who understand a chunk of what’s going on with computers. Your skill set is prized and not common enough to fill the massive, gaping need for the things you can create.

And you’re getting better and better.

You can’t be apathetic. You can’t put yourself down. If coding is what you want to do, you can’t keep putting it off.

We need you too much.

We need the people who developed and maintained Kiva Loans so that struggling business owners and entrepreneurs in countries around the world could move out of poverty.

We need this guy and OptiKey, his open source software project that uses optical tracking to let people with motor and speech limitations use computers.

We need the people who are running OpenMRS, a medical record system designed for use in developing countries and now used basically everywhere.

We need the many, many open courseware projects that provide education to people around the world who might not otherwise have access to that knowledge.

We need the people who are building a bridge into a world that is way better than the one we live in now.

We need you, and those learning around you, to hold up the bridge with us. It’s a very important bridge and lots of people need to walk across.

Every time you build something, or answer someone’s question, or successfully learn something new, you are creating something incredibly valuable that didn’t exist before. And especially when you give away something other people will use, or even that other people are paying you for making (assuming they’re not terrible people)–that means you have changed a piece of the world.

Never forget how powerful you are.

I believe in you.

On impostor syndrome

I’m feeling pretty good about my skills lately. Maybe I’m realizing I didn’t have quite so much “catching up” to do as I thought. The theory stuff I’m learning in my classes is useful, but not as complicated as it looks.

(Well, most of it. Some of it is. Though I’m starting to pick up on the idea that if I don’t understand a recursive algorithm, it probably wasn’t efficient anyway–and if I don’t understand it [I’m usually good at this sort of thing] then it better be a darn good optimization hack for me to use such an unreadable piece of code. My standards may change as I’m learning Clojure, though.)

I dislike the whole “impostor syndrome” craze. If you read tech articles on Medium and Quora and so on, everyone and their dog has impostor syndrome. Saying you have impostor syndrome is like this big, socially-acceptable, self-contradictory humble-brag: “I’m actually a genius but I don’t think I am.”

It makes about as much sense as the girls who listen to “You Don’t Know You’re Beautiful” on repeat:

“You don’t know you’re beautiful, oh oh, / That’s what makes you beautiful”

and then say, “Omigosh, 1D just totally gets me.

First off, the point is that you don’t know, so if you acknowledge the song as something you relate to then you’re canceling out your own point. Second, this song is about how the singer finds it super attractive that you have no self-esteem. Catchy.

When you’re a beginner, of course you’re looking around and thinking, “Wow, everyone else knows so much more than me.” Because they do, duh, you’re a beginner. And you’re going to be a beginner for at least a few months. If you start calling your thoughts “impostor syndrome” at this point, you’re deluding yourself. On the other hand, you need to trust your ability to learn. Just don’t underestimate that it’s going to take some work and you’re not there already.

Impostor syndrome is when you’ve still got this mindset, but you’ve also got concrete evidence that your mindset is flawed, which you then brush off by thinking that everyone else is some kind of idiot you’ve fooled into believing you have way more technical knowledge than you do.

Listen, you have respect for the other techies around you, right? Anyone you talk to on forums, StackOverflow, GitHub, your school/bootcamp/job. (If you’re roughing it alone, try to connect with someone. It helps.) If any of them are actually worthy of that respect, they can smell technical BS from a mile off. That’s a skill we all develop. If they were going to suddenly find out you’re not as skilled as they thought you were, it’d have happened a long time ago.

It’s hard to feel like you’re making progress when you can’t measure your own skill. I get it. Nobody in tech knows how good they are at what they do; we can estimate, or take the judgment of those around us. And the problem with the latter is that most everyone else is as insecure as you are, and some of them will lowball you to feel better about their own skills, while others will try to flatter you so you’ll like them.

Listen. There’s a solution to this. Not a perfect one, but one all the same.

You have to build stuff. You have to solve problems. You have to read code. You have to write code.

Empirical evidence of your own skill grounds you. It puts a lower boundary on where you are. It gives other people something tangible to assess you on. Working on something real will tell you very quickly whether you’re out of your depth or just underestimating yourself.

Here’s how you tell the difference: If you’re super confused and have to look everything up before you can do any real work, you’re just underestimating yourself. If you’re actually out of your depth, you don’t even know where to start. Misleading, I know.

The problem with the advice “just build stuff!” is that it’s really freaking hard to start. You don’t know what to make. The things you want to make are complicated. You don’t have the syntax memorized. You don’t know how to split things up sensibly into different methods or files. That’s a big problem with programmers who are just past the point of doing lots of tutorials. You don’t know where to start, and it seems like you should go back to the tutorials and learn more, because that’s usually how it works. But in this case, it’s doubly misleading. The bigness of open-source and the complexity of many of its projects are also terribly confusing.

In practice, impostor syndrome is a lack of information about your own ability. So do the scientific thing and experiment. Run some tests. And remember that, with more practice, you can change the results.

Related sidenote

Listen, I’ve been thinking about writing some more how-tos. Programming how-tos, not the Linux ones from before.

And I wonder if I might also accept some… I guess students? Mentees? Just informally. If you try to do one of my programming tutorials and you post your code on GitHub, and then drop a line here, I could look at it and help you get unstuck or suggest improvements or that kind of thing.

I can’t promise a specific response time or anything that formal. And I know some of you don’t really qualify to be my students, because you’re legitimately better programmers than I am. But otherwise, I might help you learn something new, and/or feel a little more confident about your skills.

Is that something you might be interested in?